Translating the central literature of the CPC is an important way to showcase the image of the country and disseminate China’s voice. The aim of this article is, based on the aforementioned idea and guided by transknowledgeology, to analyze the methods of translating expressions related to “人才” (talent/ professional) into Russian in various texts and contexts from Xi Jinping’s “The Governance of China IV” and to explore China’s personnel policy embedded in translation. Knowledge is conveyed through political discourse to demonstrate the discourse of power within knowledge. The research methods combine qualitative and quantitative approaches, using in-depth analysis to reveal the social nature of linguistic phenomena. The study shows that in the translation of this article, the word “кадры” (cadres) was most frequently used to convey the meaning of “人才,” followed by “специалист” (specialist), “профессионал” (professional), and “талант” (talent). Chinese industry and other sectors have a “cluster” structure, with each region having its own preferred sectors, and corresponding professional needs vary. Therefore, when translating, specific circumstances and the epochal situation should be taken into account. The choice of different words to express the term “人才” not only reflects an understanding of the situation in Chinese economic development but also China’s official stance on global human resources.
translation of central literature, transknowledgeology, translation method, political intention
Russian is a synthetic language, whereas Persian is an analytical language. The structures of these two languages are different from each other. The difference between the structures of these two languages makes it difficult to translate from one language to the other. One of these differences is the presence of gender pronouns in Russian and its absence in Persian. This difference will lead to the fact that if there are two gender pronouns in a Russian sentence, the translator will have to apply some tricks to clarify the gender content of the above pronouns. The purpose of the article is to identify techniques and methods for clarifying the gender content of Russian gender pronouns when translating from Russian into Persian. The novelty of the article lies in the fact that this article for the first time considers this problem when translating from Russian into Persian and identifies methods for solving it. This study uses a descriptive and systematic approach. The static population of this study included Russian sentences containing gender pronouns from the text of the play “The Cherry Orchard” by Anton Chekhov. At the end of the article, the methods of translating Russian gender pronouns from Russian into Persian are listed and illustrated by the Persian translation of “The Cherry Orchard” made by Simin Daneshvar.
Gender pronoun, translation, the Persian language, the Russian language, “Th e Cherry Orchard”, Anton Chekhov, Simin Daneshvar
Different parts of speech, including prepositions, enter into synonymous relations. A number of spatial prepositions with the meaning of proximity are synonymous prepositions. Belonging to spatial relations and constituting a large group, in the language system of the Russian and Persian languages, these prepositions are typical and widely represented. To express spatial relations with the meaning of proximity, synonymous prepositions y, about, at and under are used, which are close and identical in meaning, but differ from each other in semantic features. The semantic proximity of the prepositions y, about, at and under and their Persian correlates with the meaning of proximity provokes a false identification and leads to errors in the use of these prepositions by Iranian Russian students while translation other prepositions as как недалеко от, возле with the meaning of proximity does not cause any difficulty for them. Also, at present only just, these prepositions with the meaning of proximity remain unlit for Iranian students, and they cannot concretize and distinguish between distance differences between the object and locum with the studied prepositions, which is due to the relevance of this study and the reason for the limitation of the research material. In addition, the difficulty of using these Russian prepositions by Iranian students is explained by the fact that all these prepositions can be expressed in Persian by the words نزديک (nazdik-e), کنار (kenar-e), پهلوی (pakhlu-ye), etc., denoting the proximity of the object to the locum, however, the semantic shade of the Persian equivalents does not reflect the distance differentiation between the object and the locum. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distance differentiations between the object and the locum with the prepositions y, about, at and under with the meaning of proximity in comparison with their Persian correlates, and also to determine the existing relationships between them. The results of the article can be used for Iranian students in order to minimize and neutralize their mistakes when using synonymous spatial prepositions y, near, at and under with the meaning of proximity.
spatial prepositions, distance diff erentiations, locum, object, Russian and Persian languages
The article is devoted to the linguistics of color as an urgent general method of linguistic research into color and as instruments of translation of texts containing terms of color (words with a color component). The problems of such translation are presented in the article against the background of theoretic aspects of linguistics of color as a sphere of contemporary linguistic studies. The linguistics of color is represented as a widely elaborated sphere of linguistic knowledge which has its worked-out notable directions, research institutions and a range of investigating problems. The basic concepts of the linguistics of color are analyzed from the perspective of pragmatics and are embodied into the practice of translation. Linguistics of color’s critical apparatus is considered on the basis of linguistic colorimetry as a collection of particular methods contributing to understanding and translation of texts with color terms. The comprehension of color terms and possibilities of their translation depend on determining their role in the lexical systems of both the source and target languages and their place in the linguistic worldviews.
Results. The experience of color terms research concentrated in the linguistics of color and embodied in the linguistic colorimetry’s critical apparatus creates possibilities (on the basis of linguistic colorimetry methods and methods of contrastive analysis) for working out different ways of translating this lexical class. The results of the research consist in disclosure of complicated moments of texts with terms of color, the describing of translation’s problems, the compiling of recommendations as to how to deal with the terms of color and eliminate the translation problems and create a natural linguistic environment in the translated text.
Conclusions. The elimination of translation problems can be reached by using critical apparatus of linguistic colorimetry. This apparatus of disclosure of ethnic color priorities and ethnic color inclinations was created in the linguistics of color and concentrated in the linguistic colorimetry. The linguistic colorimetry based on linguistics of color is a useful collection of methods and recommendations. It is an effective mechanism contributing to the practice of understanding and translation of the figurative structure of lexical units with color components.
linguistics of color, term of color, translation, contrastive analyses, the Russian language, the Polish language
The article regards the problems concerning the Russian translations of S. Mallarmé’s (1842–1898) poetical works. Different methods and systems of translation, various approaches to rendering of mallarméan poetics and style are introduced and compared. The difficulties of translation are associated with the originality of the French poet’s aesthetic program, as well as with the singularity of his revolutionary approach to language. Different variants and directions of resolving the main translation problem are taken into consideration, while the problem itself is formulated as a search for a language adequate to the aesthetic, philosophical and poetical pursuits of the French poet.
Stéphane Mallarmé, problems of translation, French and Russian poetry, symbolism, modernism
In spite of the fact that Anton Chekhov was skeptical about translations of his own works since he believed that his works would not be understood in the West, the first translations of his plays into German appeared already during his lifetime and were successfully staged in German theatres. The following article reviews translations of Anton Chekhov ‘s play “The Cherry Orchard” into German by Peter Urban, Johannes von Gunther, Gudrun Duvel and Hilde Angarova. It may be worth noting that there are two approaches to literary translation. One involves adapting text for the recipient, which inevitably leads to a significant difference between the original and translated texts. The other involves translating closely to the original. Considering the fact that all the abovementioned translators kept to the second concept, they had to accomplish the following tasks: preserving stylistic peculiarities of the original text, translating Russian realia into German, managing phraseological locutions, conveying speech portraits of the characters, as well as adapting the text to a theatrical performance since the text should be understandable for the audience and easily pronounced by the actors. In the article we paid special attention to how all the four translators managed the difficulties and presented a detailed contrastive analysis of their works. As a result of the study, we came to the conclusion that the translations by Peter Urban and Hilde Angarova were closest to the original text due to precisely chosen equivalents. The translation by Gudrun Duvel is not inferior to the translations of Peter Urban and Hilde Angarova in the selection of lexical means, but it often sounds insufficiently concise, which distances it in some cases from the original text. Although Johannes von Gunther offered some interesting translation solutions, his translations have a number of shortcomings, the main ones are incorrect translation of realia and unnecessary additions.
drama translation, literary translation, German language, Anton Chekhov, Peter Urban, Johannes von Gunther, Gudrun Duvel, Hilde Angarova
The problem of inconsistency of the scenario and other soft - and hardware aspects of various digital entertainment products is becoming more and more popular among the scholars from various scientific areas. The main aim of this paper is analyzing the localization issues of mass-media products as well as videogame localization. The quality of an in-game experience of a localized videogame depends on a variety of factors and the most significant of them are the so-called gameplay issues. Under the term “gameplay issues” gamers and researchers often understand the features of videogame development. Facing these features could trigger different emotional reactions among the players. As a material for this paper several in-game textual materials have been chosen, viz.: Final Fantasy Chrystal Chronicles, Spider-Man and GTA: San Andreas. As the research has shown, the most usable and suitable technique for neutralizing the negative influence to the gamers caused by gameplay issues is the correction of the videogame scenario. Thus developers and localization specialists can minimize all negative influence in a fast and cheap way. However, scenario correction is not the only technique used during the development and localization processes of a videogame’s lifecycle. Here could also be mentioned another way to avoid negative emotional reactions: intersemiotical transferring. By using the toolkit of 3D visualization software a wide variety of gameplay issues could be neutralized. This technique shows itself at its best when it comes to censorship issues. In conclusion, several ways of neutralizing the negative effect of the gameplay issues have been discovered and formulated. The materials and examples mentioned in this paper could be applied in the industrial practice of the digital media localization specialists as well as used by beginners in the field of localization. Moreover, this paper could be of help to students looking for scientific information about the highly specialized translation practices.
This article focuses on the detailed rules of using certain Chinese characters whose translations into Russian are the same, which means the meanings are close, but there are still some minor differences, which is a topical problem encountered in the process of teaching the Chinese language. It should be noted that the basis for the selection of Chinese characters is the semantic context, which is often not expressed in the process of communication. The reason for this concealment is the Chinese culture. This article also studies the emergence, meaning and use of several Chinese neologisms and their requirement related to the semantic context.
Chinese language, analysis of word meaning, semantics, neologism
The articles dwells upon the study of medical documentary audiovisual texts translation. Some lexical and terminological problems of dubbing are identified and analyzed. Terminology and medical lexis are integral parts of medical documentaries. Hence, the main problems concerning special language of medicine translation are thoroughly studied. The object of the research is to distinguish some typical translation patterns of terminology, medical lexis and analyze translation strategies applied in audiovisual texts. The article deals with genre and stylistic specific features of medical documentaries audiovisual texts. In order to conduct rigorous analysis the terms “terminology” and “special language of medicine” are differentiated. The case study is based on the dubbing of the medical documentary National Geographic “In the Womb: Identical Twins”. Such methods as comparative and contrastive; statistical analysis are applied to the research. Due to comparing the original audiovisual text of medical documentary and Russian dubbing, some peculiarities of translation are observed. Thus, some definite problems in special language of medicine translation documentaries are detected; the main solutions of the problems are revealed. The study involves determination of the most frequently used translation strategies in audiovisual translation of medical documentaries. The comparative analysis of original and dubbed texts reveals that (43%) of medical terms are directly transferred. The percentage of cases when calque translation strategy is used for medical lexis is 21. Only 5 % of all cases are translated incorrectly. The findings of the study reflect a strong dependence between translation strategies and documentary video. Based on the studied material the most common lexical and terminological problems in medical audiovisual texts translation are revealed. It is concluded that context and video should be taken into consideration in medical documentary translation. Further studies of the above mentioned issues may significantly contribute to theoretical and practical aspects of medical documentary audiovisual translation.
audiovisual translation, documentary, special medical terminology, term, translation strategies
The article explores the cognitive nature of sense interpretation in translation and the role of translator/interpreter who reveals the sense meant by the sender of the source language (SL) message and conveys it in the target language (TL). The objective of the article is to study the interaction of competence and interpretation factors in translation. The tasks closely related to the objective are as follows: to identify linguistic and extralinguistic factors that bring about the need for interpreting the sense in the SL, to show the specifics of interpretation in the LSP-texts and to present the typology of translation difficulties that can be coped with by sense interpretation. The findings of the research have shown that the translator is capable of performing his/her professional tasks only if he/she has a mastery of professional translator competences — the communicative, extralinguistic and specialized ones that enable him/her to resort to the key cognitive mechanism of translation — inferencing — that serves as a basis for interpreting sense in translation. While grasping the meaning of the SL message, the translator moves from the reference to sense and derives inferences. When reverbalizing the sense in the target language in moving from the sense to reference, the translator generates implicatures targeted at the TL message recipient. Inferences and implicatures are based on the common presuppositional knowledge of the SL message sender, TL message recipient and the translator who has to perform the approximation or interactive alignment of this knowledge. The interactive alignment is possible if the translator is well-versed in the knowledge of presuppositions in the language and conceptual word view of both the source and target languages. There are two types of presuppositional knowledge: that of language structures related to interlanguage asymmetries, including discursive features of the text cohesion and coherence that are also linguo-specific and referents (that connect language to extralinguistic situations), and that related to the extralinguistic situation (encyclopedic information about the world around us, culture and specific domains of knowledge and respectively translation). The article also presents the typology of the key translation difficulties caused by the inter-language asymmetries, which result in the need to interpret the sense in the SL message and to formulate IT in the TL using its linguo-specifi c means. These translation difficulties are illustrated with interesting examples from the LSP-texts that need a special precision in translation quite frequently understood by any beginner translator as the need to preserve the expression form in the TL, which leads to word-for-word translation or transcoding. The understanding of the role of interpretation in translation of LSP-texts helps to observe the norms of TL style and usage while at the same time it makes it possible to render the meaning and sense of the SL as was meant by the message sender.
N. Tolstoy’s novel “War and Peace” and its Chinese translation are taken as an example for study. The author alternately analyzes translation examples from the point of view of representativeness at the phonetic level, the level of word-formation models, as well as at the grammatical, lexical and syntactic levels, from different points of view investigating the causes of errors in Russian-Chinese translation. Methods: comparative analysis, generalization, correction and systematization. Findings: achieving the representativeness of a translation at the microlevel does not affect its representativeness at the macrolevel, but errors in translations that have not reached representativeness at the macrolevel can manifest themselves at any of the microlevels. Conclusions: in their professional practice, translators should strive for representativeness of translation not only at the macrolevel, but also make every effort to achieve representativeness at the microlevels described above. This will allow them to carry out the translation closest to the source text and reproduce as accurately as possible the ideological content that the author of the source text wanted to convey to the reader.
inaccurate translation, representativeness, S.V. Tyulenev, microlevel, “War and peace”